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Key Points

High proliferative capacity and an abundant supply of live mesenchymal regenerative cells

Trilineage differentiation ability – ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

Can differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and neural cells

Provokes little immune response when transplanted, cell rejection is not an issue and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching is not necessary

Immunomodulatory properties –

- Cells do not pose risk for metastasis of tumor cells
- Cells promote proteins that halt the cell cycle of cancer cells and promote tumor suppressing genes
- Cells invoke the body’s immune system

Induce hepatocyte differentiation

Can differentiate into Schwann cells

Help organize tendon collagen fibers

Noninvasive procedures such as liposuction or bone marrow collection. Are more robust than other MSC from other sources such as fat. Range and level of specific cytokines that are different from those expressed by adult mesenchymal regenerative cells

Have stronger myogenic potential and engraftment properties

Have a stronger anti-inflammatory protective effect

Have less damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS)

Increased expression of integrin and increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase Src and FAK

Lack the damage from NSAIDs improving the cells viability or plasticity

Have been shown to differentiate into nervous system cells, liver, pancreas, heart, and other organs of the body

Continue to express molecules with immune-modulating activity after they are extracted from the umbilical cord and able to pass this ability to their progeny This enables the infused donor cells, whether differentiated or not, to engraft into the diseased target organ and positively modify its microenvironment to promote repopulation the infusion of immunomodulatory MSC provide a significant advantage by better overcoming host responses, providing the needed functional bridging action, and modifying the underlying pathological conditions at the basis of disease

Retain telomere at the highest possible length which protects them from premature loss of viability

Larger amount of different growth factors especially bFGF

Strong migratory ability toward the site of inflammation

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